REE-bearing mineral sands, Erongo region

Enrichment of heavy minerals in the foreshore, Erongo region

Heavy mineral sands accumulate in coastal environments and are a potential source of minerals containing critical elements (e.g., monazite, zircon, xenotime, tourmaline). Red and black heavy mineral sands occur locally along the Atlantic coast of Namibia’s Erongo region. This case study tests the applicability of portable XRF spectrometers for the exploration of heavy mineral sands, in particular for the identification of critical element-bearing minerals. The case study will also establish the performance of pXRF on unprepared mineral sands with different moisture contents.